LOGIC OPERATOR

AND Gate

 AND_Gate.gif (8002 bytes)

Η πύλη AND έχει δύο εισόδους και μία έξοδο που είναι “H”, αν και οι δύο είσοδοι είναι “H”. Η συνάρτηση της πύλης AND είναι: Y=A·B και ο πίνακας αληθείας της πύλης AND παρουσιάζεται στον Fig.1c .

The symbol for an AND gate is shown in Fig.1a where A . B is read "A AND B". As indicated in the truth table, an output appears only when there are inputs at A AND B. If the inputs are in the form of positive voltage pulses [with respect to ground], inputs at A and B reverse bias both diodes, no current flows through the resistance and there is a positive output (H).In general, there may be several inputs terminals. If any one of the inputs is zero (0) current flows through that forward-biased diode and the output is nearly zero (0). For two inputs varying with time , a typical response is sown in Fig.1d.

OR Gate

OR_Gate.gif (5685 bytes)

Η πύλη OR έχει δύο εισόδους και μία έξοδο που είναι “H”, αν τουλάχιστον μία από τις δύο εισόδους είναι “H”. Η συνάρτηση της πύλης OR είναι: Y=A+B και ο πίνακας αληθείας της πύλης OR παρουσιάζεται στο Fig.2c

The symbol for an gate is Fig. 2a where A+B is read "A OR B". As indicated in the truth table , the output is (H) if input A OR B is (H). For no input (zero voltage) in Fig. 2b, no current flows and the output is zero (0) .An input of +5 V (H) at either terminal A or B or both (or at any terminal in the general case) forward biases the corresponding diode , current flows through the resistance and the output voltage rises to nearly 5V (H). For two inputs varying with time ,the response is as shown.

 

NOR Gate

NOR_Gate.gif (6031 bytes)

Η πύλη NOR προκύπτει από μία πύλη OR ακολουθούμενη από μία πύλη NOT. Η πύλη NOR έχει δύο εισόδους και μία έξοδο που είναι “H”, αν και οι δύο είσοδοι είναι “L”. Η συνάρτηση της πύλης NOR είναι: Y_A_B.gif (952 bytes) και ο πίνακας αληθείας της πύλης NOR παρουσιάζεται στο Fig. 3c

In the diode OR gate Fig.3b ,a positive input at A OR B produces a voltage across R and a positive output voltage . But this output is less than the input (by the diode voltage drop) and after a few cascaded operations the signal would decrease below a dependable level. A transistor can be used to restore the level Fig.3b however ,the inherent inversion results in a NOT OR or NOR operation. The small circle on the NOR element symbol and the bar in the Y_A_B.gif (952 bytes) output indicate the inversion process. In the Nor circuits with no input no input , the transistor switch is held OFF by the negative base voltage and the output is +5V (H) .A positive voltage at terminal A or B raises the base potential, forward biases the emitter

junction , turns the transistor switch ON and drops the output to nearly zero (0). In addition to restoring the signal level, the transistor provides a relatively low outputs impedance so that this NOR element can supply inputs to many other gates . Another advantage is that all the basic operations can be achieved using only NOR gates.

 

NAND Gate

NAND_Gate.gif (6068 bytes)

Η πύλη NAND προκύπτει από μία πύλη AND ακολουθούμενη από μία πύλη NOT. Η πύλη NAND έχει δύο εισόδους και μία έξοδο που είναι “H”, αν τουλάχιστον μία από τις δύο εισόδους είναι “L”. Η συνάρτηση της πύλης NAND είναι: Y_A-B.gif (938 bytes) και ο πίνακας αληθείας της πύλης NAND παρουσιάζεται στον Fig. 4c

Diodes and a transistor can be combined to perform an inverted AND function. Such a NAND gate has all the advantages of a NOR gate and is very easy to fabricate , particularly in integrated circuit form. In a complex logic system it is convenient to use just one type of gate , even when simpler types would be satisfactory , so that gate characteristics are the same throughout the system. The NAND gate function is defined by the truth table in Fig. 4 .The small circle on the NAND element symbol and the bar on the Y_A-B.gif (938 bytes) output indicate the inversion process. With positive inputs at A and B (H AND H ) ,the diodes are reverse biased and no diode current flows ; the positive base current causes heavy collector current and output is approximately zero (0). If either A or B has a zero (0) input , at least one diode conducts to ground , the emitter junction voltage drops below the critical value ,no base current and hence no collector current flows, and the output is +5V (H). For more positive cutoff, a second diode may be placed in series with the base of the transistor.

 

 

NOT Gate

NOT_Gate.gif (5002 bytes)

Η πύλη NOT έχει μία είσοδο και μία έξοδο που είναι ίση με το συμπλήρωμα της εισόδου. Η συνάρτηση της πύλης NOT είναι: Y_A_logic.gif (906 bytes)και ο πίνακας αληθείας της πύλης NOT παρουσιάζεται στον Fig. 5c

The inversion inherent in a transistor circuit corresponds to a logic NOT represented by the symbol in Fig. 5 where Y_A_logic.gif (906 bytes) "NOT A ". As indicated in the truth table, the NOT element is an inverter the output is the complement of the single input. With no input (0) the transistor switch is held open by the negative base voltage and the output is +5V (H). A positive input voltage (H) forward biases the emitter junction, collector current flows, and the output voltage drops to a few tenths of a volt (0). For a changing input, the output response is as shown.

 

Sam Electronic Circuits 8/01

[ Home ] [ My Database ] [My Guestbook ] [E-Mail ]